Plait with venous or arterial bleeding. Overlap of tourniquet in venous bleeding

How to stop venous bleeding?

When bleeding from the superficial veins should be washed with hydrogen peroxide wound and apply a tight bandage. To do this, apply a sterile napkin to the wound, a tight lump of cotton wool is put on it and tightly wrapped with circular strokes. After applying a tight bandage should always consult a doctor. If the bandage is significantly soaked with blood and the bleeding does not stop, then damage to the deep veins should be assumed and a tourniquet applied.

Bleeding from deep veins of the extremities, as well as veins of the neck and head, requires urgent measures, since in a short period of time a person will lose a sufficiently large amount of blood. A decrease in circulating blood volume can lead to shock, acute renal failure and other life-threatening conditions.

If you suspect that you have bleeding from deep veins, you must:

· Give limbs an elevated position;

· Overlap the harness;

· Attach an ice pack or hot water bottle to the bleeding site;

· In the shortest possible time to deliver the victim to the clinic.

When the neck veins are damaged, there is a problem in clamping the bleeding vessel, because it is quite natural that you cannot use a tourniquet. If there is a possibility of such a condition, the person should be taken to hospital as soon as possible.

Urgent Care this includes the following activities:

· Bleeding vessel should be pressed with fingers above and below the injury site, if possible pressing it to the bone base;

· With a napkin soaked in hydrogen peroxide, tightly clamp the wound, thereby preventing air from entering the bloodstream and the development of an air embolus;

· Attach a cold to the site of bleeding;

· Urgently deliver the victim to the nearest hospital where the vessel will be sutured.

In case of nose bleeding, a cotton swab moistened with hydrogen peroxide should be inserted into the nasal passage. Then press the wing of the nose to the nose. To stop bleeding, you can not tilt your head back, especially if the victim is unconscious. This will cause blood to drain. back wall pharynx and can get into Airways . To completely stop the bleeding from the nose should be attached to the nose or neck to attach a heating pad with cold water for 3 minutes, after a break for 3 minutes. Repeat until complete bleeding stops.

Overlay harness when venous bleeding

The success of the activities and the restoration of the limb after the provision of medical care depends on the correctness of the application of the harness. The tourniquet can be applied for 1.5-2 hours in the summer and 1-1.5 hours in the winter. In addition, every hour in the summer and every half hour in the winter, it should be loosened for a few minutes, while pressing the damaged vein against the bone to prevent recovery of bleeding.

The rules for applying a tourniquet for venous bleeding are:

· Since venous blood flows from the distal limb to the proximal, the tourniquet is superimposed below the injury site as close as possible to the wound;

· Apply clothing or a fabric lining to the skin so as not to injure the soft tissue;

· With energetic movements, the tourniquet is stretched and wrapped around the limb;

· The coils are arranged one behind the other, without pinching between the skin;

· Each subsequent round should go a little on the previous one;

· After two or three turns, the tension of the tow can be somewhat loosened;

· Attach a note to the limb indicating the time of application of the tourniquet or write the time on the patient's skin;

· The harness itself should not be covered by clothes; it is necessary that it immediately catches the eye.

The correctness of the imposition of a harness in case of damage to the veins is determined by the absence of bleeding, but the preservation of pulsation in the arteries (radial or artery of the foot). The technique of emergency care for venous bleeding is quite simple. The main thing is not to get lost and do everything according to the algorithm. Emergency care largely determines the prognosis for recovery and the life of the patient, so everyone should possess these skills.

It is useful for everyone to know how to apply a tourniquet for venous bleeding in order to provide first aid to the victim. In venous bleeding, not only a tourniquet is applied, but also a pressure bandage, depending on the degree of damage.

Each person will be useful to know how to provide first aid when opening venous bleeding. The following article describes how to deal with this situation, before the arrival of medical workers.

In order to learn how to apply a tourniquet for venous bleeding, you must read the following instructions. First of all, before proceeding directly with the imposition of the tourniquet, it is necessary to determine exactly what vein turned out to be damaged, not the artery, since here there are slightly different first-aid techniques.

Understand that it was precisely venous bleeding that began quite easily, since the blood has a characteristic dark cherry color, and the blood flow is very slow. Although it is necessary to take into account the fact that with severe damage to the vein, blood can beat and quite a strong jet. However, no matter what kind of damage severity is determined, first aid in any case should be rendered immediately. Only because of this will it be possible to prevent more blood loss.

So, first, but as quickly as possible, it will be necessary to determine directly the site of damage to the vein, as well as the degree of severity. Thanks to this, it will be possible to determine which method of stopping the bleeding will be needed - for example, if the damage is minor, it will not be necessary to apply the tourniquet, as you can do by pressing the finger of the site of the damage, after which a pressure bandage is applied. And the victim must try, as soon as possible, to deliver to the nearest medical facility so that he will be provided with qualified medical assistance.

And the victim must try, as soon as possible, to deliver to the nearest medical facility so that he will be provided with qualified medical assistance

It is important to know how to apply a tourniquet. Venous bleeding, which opens when a vein is damaged, may require a special pressure bandage or tourniquet, which stops the bleeding and prevents large blood loss.

If the damage to the vein turned out to be insignificant, it is necessary to act as follows - it is necessary to attach a finger to the vessel slightly below the injury site. This must be done because venous blood moves through the vessels from the bottom up. Most often, this action is quite enough to stop the blood, but if it did not help, then you will need to apply a tourniquet or a pressure bandage.

So, with venous bleeding, a special tourniquet is applied. To stop severe bleeding, it is necessary to lift the injured limb slightly above the heart area. Thanks to this rather simple action, there is a natural weakening of the pressure exerted on the vein. It is in this position that the injured limb should remain when a harness or a special pressure bandage is applied.

If the bleeding turned out to be very strong, and there is no certainty that a simple bandage will help, it is necessary to apply a tourniquet. Do not waste time - you must immediately begin to apply the harness. A fairly simple technique of applying a harness must be observed without fail, since, if improperly applied, it can be traumatic, not less than the damage to the vein itself.

Overlapping of the harness should be carried out slightly below the wound itself. In that case, if it is not possible to use a special harness, then it can be easily replaced with a simple belt, handkerchief or any piece of thick fabric. In order not to injure nerves and skin accidentally, it is necessary to put a harness on top of the clothes, with each subsequent turn should be much stronger than the previous one, but the harness should not be very tight. It is necessary to try as accurately as possible to remember the time of the imposition of the harness, and even better to write on paper.

Bleeding is the discharge of blood from an injured blood vessel, which is external or internal (from the organs of the chest or abdomen). When external bleeding secrete arterial, venous and capillary.

Arterial bleeding is characterized by the flow of scarlet blood, which is poured out of the gaping wound in a pulsing stream. For venous bleeding is characterized by the expiration of the wound of dark blood in a continuous continuous stream.

Capillary bleeding occurs with abrasions or scalped wounds, in which blood from small, damaged blood vessels flows like a sponge. Of particular danger is bleeding from the arteries, which in a short time leads to severe blood loss, and sometimes - to the death of the victim. If the signs of acute blood loss are very pronounced, then after the bleeding stops, at the same time as the victim is transported, it is necessary to inject the drugs intravenously.

Finger pressing of a vein is carried out for a short-term stop of bleeding. The imposition of a tourniquet below the wound is recommended for massive bleeding. The elevated position of the limb, wound tamponade and a tight bandage (pressure) dressing are designed to stop venous bleeding. This in most cases helps to avoid the use of such rather dangerous methods for arresting bleeding as the application of a twist or tourniquet.

Arterial bleeding leads to a large blood loss in a short time. Therefore, after the injury should immediately take the necessary measures.

Stopping bleeding always begins with this method, and only then use other, more advanced - often in the form of a tight pressure bandage or tourniquet. For execution fingertip the vessel should be well aware of the places where the damaged artery is not very deep and where it can be pressed against the bone. Usually in such places it is always possible to probe the pulsation of arterial vessels.

When bleeding from a wound located on the shoulder girdle, shoulder or forearm, you can stop the bleeding by pressing thumb hands of the subclavian artery to the I rib above the clavicle or by pressing the brachial artery to the humerus. With the development of arterial bleeding from a wound lower limb pressing the femoral artery to the pubic bone in the area of ​​the inguinal fold. When pressing the artery with your finger in the right places, you need to make a significant effort. The artery must be pressed for a short time, for the time it takes to put a pressure bandage, tourniquet or twist.

Plait impose on the limb with heavy bleeding (from arteries or large veins). Instead, you can use a twist. This method of stopping bleeding requires adherence to a number of rules.

1. The harness should be applied as close as possible to the wound.
2. Before applying a tourniquet on a limb, if possible, it is necessary to give it an exalted position.
3. Plait must be applied to clothing or any strip in the form of a scarf, kerchief, towels.
4. Before applying the tourniquet, you should first try to stop the bleeding by pressing your finger.
5. It is necessary to secure the overlapped harness.
6. It is unacceptable to keep the tourniquet on the limb more than 2 hours in the summer and 1–1.5 hours in the winter, since the cessation of blood supply to the limb for a longer period with low temperatures leads to its death.
7. After the tourniquet is applied, you need to attach a note to it with the date and exact time of its imposition.
8. In winter, a limb with a bundled rope is required to be wrapped with clothing or other warm material.

For the twist, you can use a scarf, belt, ribbon, a strip of durable fabric. These objects should be put above or below the wound site, and their ends should be knotted with a loop. In the loop should insert a stick with which to tighten the twist until the bleeding stops. Then secure the free end of the stick with a bandage. When applying a twist, follow the same rules as when using a tourniquet. You can not use to twist thin ropes, electrical wires, telephone cables, as they can damage soft tissue.

Effective only when bleeding from small arteries. Requires the imposition of additional dressing material in a short period of time.

With this position of the limb, the blood vessel is compressed. This can be enhanced by putting a tight cotton-marl roller on the fold and then fixing the limb securely in the most bent position. This technique is used to stop arterial bleeding of the extremities, but it is not suitable for stopping bleeding from wounds that are combined with bone fractures or damage to the joints. When bleeding stops in the hand and forearm area, you need to bend the arm at the elbow joint, put a cotton-gauze roller into the elbow bend and a bandage bandage or trouser belt to fix the shoulder and forearm with the maximum approach of their surfaces.

When stopping bleeding from the subclavian region and the upper half of the shoulder, the roller is inserted into the region of the axillary fossa. Hands should be bent at the elbow joints, lead behind the back and firmly secure one to the other using a trouser belt or a bandage bandage. Bleeding from a wound of the lower leg can be stopped by inserting a dense cotton gauze roller into the popliteal fossa, or by strongly bending the leg at the knee joint and pinning the lower leg to the thigh.

According to the materials of the book "Quick Help in Emergency Situations."
Kashin S.P.

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